Thermodynamics || Class 12 Chemistry || PDF


4.1 Introduction  
4.2 Energy in chemical reactions 
4.3 Internal energy 
4.4 First law of thermodynamics  
4.5 Enthalpy and enthalpy changes: Endothermic and exothermic processes) 
4.6 Enthalpy of reaction, enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion 
4.7 Laws of thermochemistry (Laplace Law and Hess’s law) 
4.8 Entropy and spontaneity 
4.9 Second law of thermodynamics 
4.10 Gibbs' free energy and prediction of spontaneity  
4.11 Relationship between ∆G and equilibrium constant (Solving related numerical problems) 

Learning Outcomes
4.1 Define thermodynamics. 
4.2 Explain the energy change in chemical reactions. 
4.3 Define the terms internal energy and state function. 
4.4 State and explain first law of thermodynamics. 
4.5 State and explain enthalpy and enthalpy changes in various process (enthalpy of solution, enthalpy of formation enthalpy of combustion and enthalpy of reaction). 
4.6 Explain endothermic and exothermic process with the help of energy profile diagram. 
4.7 State laws of thermo-chemistry and solve numerical problems related to Hess law. 
4.8 Define the term entropy and spontaneity.  
4.9 State and explain second law of thermodynamics. 
4.10 Define standard Gibbs free energy change of reaction by means of the equation ΔG = ΔH– TΔS. 
4.11 Calculate ΔG for a reaction using the equation ΔG = ΔH– TΔS. 
4.12 State whether a reaction or process will be spontaneous by using the sign of ΔG. 
4.13 Explain the relationship between ΔG and equilibrium constant.


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