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Organic Chemistry

Grade XII

Organic Chemistry Syllabus

8. Haloalkanes

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohaloalkanes
8.3 Preparation of monohaloalkanes from alkanes, alkenes and alcohols
8.4 Physical properties of monohaloalkanes
8.5 Chemical properties, substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 reactions (basic concept only)
8.6 Formation of alcohol, nitrile, amine, ether, thioether, carbylamines, nitrite and nitro alkane using haloalkanes
8.7 Elimination reaction (dehydrohalogenation - Saytzeff's rule), Reduction reactions, Wurtz reaction
8.8 Preparation of trichloromethane from ethanol and propanone
8.9 Chemical properties of trichloromethane: oxidation, reduction, action on silver powder, conc. nitric acid, propanone, and aqueous alkali

9. Haloarenes

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Nomenclature and isomerism of haloarenes
9.3 Preparation of chlorobenzene from benzene and benzene diazonium chloride
9.4 Physical properties
9.5 Chemical properties
9.5.1 Low reactivity of haloarenes as compared to haloalkanes in term of nucleophilic substitution reaction
9.5.2 Reduction of chlorobenzene
9.5.3 Electrophilic substitution reactions
9.5.4 Action with Na (Fittig and Wurtz- Fittig reaction)
9.5.5 Action with chloral
9.6 Uses of haloarenes

10. Alcohols

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Nomenclature, isomerism and classification of monohydric alcohol
10.3 Distinction of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols by Victor Meyer's Method
10.4 Preparation of monohydric alcohols from Haloalkane, primary amines, and esters
10.5 Industrial preparation alcohol from: oxo process, hydroboration-oxidation of ethene & fermentation of sugar
10.6 Definition of common terms: Absolute alcohol, power alcohol, denatured alcohol (methylated spirit), rectified spirit; alcoholic beverage
10.7 Physical properties monohydric alcohols
10.8 Chemical properties of monohydric alcohols
10.8.1 Reaction with HX, PX3, PCl5, SOCl2
10.8.2 Action with reactive metals like Na, K, Li
10.8.3 Dehydration of alcohols
10.8.4 Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol with mild oxidizing agents like acidified KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7
10.8.5 Catalyic dehydrogenation of 10 and 20 alcohol and dehydration of 30 alcohol
10.8.6 Esterification reaction
10.8.7 Test of ethanol

11. Phenols

11.1 Introduction and nomenclature
11.2 Preparation of phenol from i. chlorobenzene ii. Diazonium salt and iii. benzene sulphonic acid
11.3 Physical properties of phenol
11.4 Chemical properties
11.4.1 Acidic nature of phenol (comparison with alcohol and water)
11.4.2 Action with NH3, Zn, Na, benzene diazonium chloride and phthalic anhydride
11.4.3 Acylation reaction, Kolbe's reaction, Reimer-Tiemann's reaction
11.4.4 Electrophilic substitution: nitration, sulphonation, brominaiton and Friedal-Craft's alkylation
11.5 Test of phenol: (FeCl3 test, aq. Bromine test & Libermann test)
11.6 Uses of phenol

12. Ethers

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Nomenclature, classification and isomerism of ethers
12.3 Preparation of aliphatic and aromatic ethers from Williamson's synthesis
12.4 Physical properties of ether
12.5 Chemical properties of ethoxyethane: action with HI , Conc. HCl, Conc. H2SO4, air and Cl2
12.6 Uses of ethers

13. Aldehydes and Ketones

13.1 Aliphatic aldehydes and ketones

13.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
13.1.2 Preparation of aldehydes and ketones from: Dehydrogenation and oxidation of alcohol, Ozonolysis of alkenes, Acid chloride, Gem dihaloalkane, Catalytic hydration of alkynes
13.1.3 Physical properties of aldehydes and ketones
13.1.4 Chemical properties Structure and nature of carbonyl group Distinction between aldehyde and ketones by using 2,4- DNP reagent, Tollen's reagent, Fehling's solution Addition reaction: addition of H2, HCN and NaHSO3 Action of aldehyde and ketone with ammonia derivatives; NH2OH, NH2-NH2, phenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide, Aldol condensation Cannizzaro's reaction Clemmensen's reduction Wolf-Kishner reduction Action with PCl5 and action with LiAlH4 Action of methanal with ammonia and phenol
13.1.5 Formalin and its uses

13.2 Aromatic aldehydes and Ketones

13.2.1 Preparation of benzaldehyde from toluene and acetophenone from benzene
13.2.2 Properties of benzaldehyde Perkin condensation Benzoin condensation Cannizzaro's reaction Electrophilic substitution reaction

14. Carboxylic Acid and its Derivaties

14.1 Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids

14.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
14.1.2 Preparation of monocarboxylic acids from: aldehydes, nitriles, dicarboxylic acid, sodium alkoxide and trihaloalkanes
14.1.3 Preparation of benzoic acid from alkyl benzene
14.1.4 Physical properties of monocarboxylic acids
14.1.5 Chemical properties: Action with alkalies, metal oxides, metal carbonates, metal bicarbonates,
PCl3, LiAlH4 and dehydration of carboxylic acid
14.1.6 Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction
14.1.7 Electrophilic substitution reaction of benzoic acid - bromination, nitration and sulphonation)
14.1.8 Effect of constituents on the acidic strength of carboxylic acid
14.1.9 Abnormal behaviour of methanoic acid

14.2 Derivatives of Carboxylic acids (acid halides, amides, esters and anhydrides)

14.2.1 Preparation of acid derivatives from carboxylic acid
14.2.2 Comparative physical properties of acid derivatives
14.2.3 Comparative chemical properties of acid derivatives (hydrolysis, ammonolysis, amines (RNH2), alcoholysis, and reduction only)
14.2.4 Claisen condensation
14.2.5 Hofmann bromamide reaction
14.2.6 Amphoteric nature of amide
14.2.7 Relative reactivity of acid derivatives

15. Nitro Compounds

15.1 Nitroalkanes

15.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature and isomerism
15.1.2 Preparation from haloalkane and alkane
15.1.3 Physical properties
15.1.4 Chemical properties: Reduction

15.2 Nitrobenzene

15.2.1 Preparation from benzene
15.2.2 Physical properties
15.2.3 Chemical properties
15.2.4 Reduction in different media
15.2.5 Electrophilic substitution reactions (nitration, sulphonation & bromination)
15.2.6 Uses of nitro-compounds

16. Amines

16.1 Aliphatic amines

16.1.1 Introduction, nomenclature, classification and isomerism
16.1.2 Separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines by Hoffmann's method
16.1.3 Preparation of primary amines from haloalkane, nitriles, nitroalkanes and amides
16.1.4 Physical properties
16.1.5 Chemical properties: basicity of amines, comparative study of basic nature of 10, 20 and 30 amines
16.1.6 Reaction of primary amines with chloroform, conc. HCl, R-X, RCOX and nitrous acid (NaNO2 / HCl)
16.1.7 Test of 10, 20 and 30 amines (nitrous acid test)

16.2 Aromatic amine (Aniline)

16.2.1 Preparation of aniline from nitrobenzene, phenol
16.2.2 Physical properties
16.2.3 Chemical properties: basicity of aniline, comparison of basic nature of aniline with aliphatic amines and ammonia, alkylation, acylation, diazotization, carbylamine and coupling reaction, electrophilic substitution: Nitration sulphonation and bromination
16.2.4 Uses of aniline

17. Organometallic Compounds

17.1 Introduction, general formula and examples of organolithium, organocopper and organocadmium compounds
17.2 Nature of Metal-Carbon bond
17.3 Grignard reagent
17.3.1 Preparation (using haloalkane and haloarene)
17.3.2 Reaction of Grignard reagent with water, aldehydes and ketones ( preparation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols), carbon dioxide, HCN, RCN, ester and acid chloride

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  2. You can find the notes of class 12 phenols from here. < a href =""> Phenol Notes .