First Law of Thermodynamics || Class 12 Physics || Note


4.1 Thermodynamic systems 
4.2 Work done during volume change 
4.3 Heat and work; Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics 
4.4 Thermodynamic processes: Adiabatic, isochoric, isothermal and isobaric 
4.5 Heat capacities of an ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them 
4.6 Isothermal and Adiabatic processes for an ideal gas. 

Learning Outcomes
4.1  Clarify the concept of thermodynamic system. 
4.2  Explain the  meaning  of  work  done  by the system  and work  done  on  the system, and  describe  how  work  done by  gas  during expansion  can  be calculated from  indicator  (P  –  V) diagram. 
4.3  Explain the  concept  of latent heat and internal energy. 
4.4  State and explain first law of thermodynamics - increase  of  internal energy (dU) = heat  into the  system (dQ)  + work done  on  the system (PdV) realizing  its limitations and necessity of second law  of thermodynamics. 
4.5  Define and explain two specific heat capacities of gas appreciating the relation Cp  – Cv = R  and cp  –  cv =  r. 
4.6  Explain  various thermodynamic process  (isothermal, isobaric, isochoric and  adiabatic) with  good concept  of  their  P  –  V  diagram. 
4.7  Derive  adiabatic equation PV  = constant. 
4.8  Derive expression  for  work  done during  isothermal and  adiabatic process. 
4.9  Give  concept of  reversible  and irreversible process with examples. 
4.10  Solve mathematical problems  related to  first law of thermodynamics  and thermodynamic process. 

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